Northern Europe no longer freezes in winter

Stockholm is surrounded by more than two hundred thousand islands, many of them inhabited and that make up the largest archipelago in the Baltic Sea. The public transport of the archipelago with the rest of the city is done by boat, whose schedule was determined in winter by the passage of an icebreaker ship that opened the communication routes in the ice. For some years now, the Stockholm archipelago has no longer frozen and the snow no longer covers the city. It is common for newspaper readers to send private photos to the newsrooms comparing the state of their terraces, patios or gardens, formerly covered by masses of white snow, dry, gray and dark, now.

From Teriberka, known as the end of the world town, on the coast of the Barents Sea, in russian territory, "We no longer send reports on the thickness of the ice because for at least ten years the temperature of sea water has exceeded zero degrees Celsius for most of the winter", Svetlana Ivanova reports for DN Stockholm newspaper. From the weather station that, with 130 years of history, it is one of the oldest in the world, Ivanova explains that, «Before we could have temperatures of less 1,3 degrees in water. Now it is normal to have until 3,5 positive degrees ». «I still remember seeing people walk on the ice of the bay back to their houses at noon for lunch. That is no longer possible to do now », concludes with a certain melancholy Svetlana.

In 2017 the Government of Finland commissioned an international investigation into climate change in the Barents Sea. According to their results, the temperature of the Barents Sea and the north of the Arctic Ocean increases at twice the speed of the rest of the world's seas.. The bottom of the Barents Sea is at an average of 230 meters deep while the average depth of the rest of the seas is 3.729 meters. This fact facilitates the increase in temperature in Barents.

Russia is one of the countries most exposed to the climate emergency. For two consecutive years, the years of 2019 and 2020, Siberia has been devastated by severe forest fires that have claimed an area of ​​forest greater than the geographical extension of Greece and Belgium combined. Also, at the end of May this year they spilled 20.000 tons of diesel oil in a Norilsk river. Thawing of permafrost or permafrost caused deposits containing the oil to burst.

However, Kremlin reaction remains contradictory. On the one hand, Russia has not only signed, but has ratified the treaty of Paris, while its president, Vladimir Putin, affirms that climate change can bring important strategic advantages such as opening of the arctic ocean passage across northeast Russia.

What does not seem to be an advantage for anyone, much less for Russia, is that the ice sheet that covers the most superficial levels of the soil in many cold regions and close to glaciers, what is known as permafrost or permafrost, melts faster than expected. We refer to a total area similar to that of all deserts on the globe and that occupies, in the case of Russia, he 60 % of its territory. Infrastructure is built on this frozen land, roads and houses, or fuel tanks, and all living things in nature are adapted to this eternal frost known as permafrost or permafrost.

Permafrost or permafrost can be several hundred meters thick and is made up of water, land, ice and stones as well as ancient remains of animals and plants. According to scientific calculations there are about 1.500 million tons of carbon stored in the northern permafrost zone. Currently melting faster in the Siberian area, which will release a huge amount of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere that will influence global warming.

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